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Java vs Python

POSTED ON NOVEMBER 2, 2018 BY Shaveta Chawla

The simplicity of the Programming Languages

To choose between Java and Python is not that kind of rivalry as both the languages typically have different use cases and fan bases. It's important to know that Java and Python share important similarities as well as key differences. Java and Python are powerful programming languages, for example, with large communities and a huge array of libraries supported by a large number of developers. If you don’t know or you cannot do something with the native language then you very likely find a library to provide the required support. In fact, no one knows the bound of this library support for either language and neither no one could try them all. While not as famous as it once was Java is still the most popular programming language by virtually any measure and Python’s popularity and growth has been extremely especially in developed and high-income countries. According to some sources, Python will in time overtake Java's popularity. The reasons for the amazing growth are Python's developer productivity, a flexibility of the language, it's library support, community support and easy to learn. But as two of the most popular programming languages, it's worth looking at some of their similarities, differences, programming style, syntax and speed of the languages.

Why should we need to compare Python vs Java?

Firstly, we are comparing to one of the most widely used languages in the period. Why comparing do you ask? Well, when you step into a store to buy appliances, do you buy just buy any, or do you compare the bestselling models, the best features of it and then make a decision? To choose among Java or Python for a particular project, you must be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of each over the other. In this Java and Python article, SPINEOR, will help you with the same you and will be able to choose Python or Java.

Writing a simple program in Java and Python

Strictly comparing Python and Java, we first compare a simple program in any programming language to print “Hello, I am Java/Python”.
Let’s firstly see the program in Java.

public class HelloIamJava
{
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		System.out.println("Hello, I am Java");
	}
}

Now, let’s try the same program in Python.

print(“Hello, I am Python”)

As we can see above, we should write 7 lines of code in Java, and 1 line in Python. Let’s further discuss parts of this simple program and other things.

Syntax – Python, and Java

A striking characteristic of Python is simple because of python syntax. Let’s see the minute differences.

Missing a Semicolon

Python statements do not need a semicolon to end, see in the below example.

>>> a=5

But it is possible to add it. In a same way, if you miss a semicolon in Java, it throws an error in the program.

class Example
{
	public static void main (String[] args)
	{
		int a=5;
		System.out.println(a)
	}
}

Compilation error #stdin compilation error #stdout 0.05s 26717KB
Main.java:7: error: ‘;’ expected
System.out.println(a)
^
1 error

Missing Curly Braces and Indentation

In Java, you must end the statement using semicolons. Without semicolons, the program throws the compilation error. But In Python, there is no sign of curly braces. So, to clarify blocks, it always mandates indentation. Some too lazy programmers don’t write the indent their code, but with Python, they have no other choice. But you should complement the indentation with a colon ending the line before it.

>>> if 2<1:
print("Lesser")

Greater

Now, let’s see if we can skip the curly braces and indentation in Java.

class Example
{
	public static void main (String[] args)
	{
		if(2<1)
		System.out.println("1");
	}
}

Success #stdin #stdout 0.05s 27681KB
1

Here, we could skip the braces because it’s a single-line if-statement. Indentation isn’t a problem here. It is because when we have only one statement, we no need to define a block. And if we have blocks of code, we define it using curly braces. Hence, whether mention the code or not, it does not make any difference. Let’s try with an example block of code for the statement.

class Example
{
	public static void main (String[] args)
	{
		if(2<1)
		System.out.println("1");
		System.out.println("Lesser");
	}
}

Success #stdin #stdout 0.06s 27919KB
Lesser

As we can see, 2 is less than 1, the if statement’s body isn’t executed. Since we don’t have curly braces here, only the first print statement is considered to be its body. This is why here, only the second statement is executed; it isn’t in the if’s body.

Missing a Parentheses

Starting Python 3.x, a set of parentheses is a must to print a statement. All other lines of code will run with or without it.

>>> print("Hello. I am the First Line")
Hello
>>> print "Hello, I am Second Line"
SyntaxError: Missing parentheses in a call to ‘print’
This is not the same with Java, where you must and use parentheses.

Comments in Java and Python

Comments are lines which are ignored by the interpreter. Java supports multiline comments, but Python does not support it. The two types of comments in Java are.

//This is an example for single-line comment
/*This is an example for multiline comment
Yes, it is*/

Let’s see what comment looks like in Python coding.
>>> #This is a comment

Here, documentation comments may be used at the beginning of a function’s body to explain what it can do. These are declared by using triple quotes (“””).
>>> """
This is a doc string
"""
'\n\tThis is a doc string\n'

The above are the Java and Python Syntax comparison

Dynamically declared types

One of the major differences is that Python is dynamically declaring types. This means that we don’t have to declare the type of the variable, it is declared at run-time. This is called Duck Typing Statements.

>>> age=24

we could reassign it to a string, and it wouldn’t make much difference.
>>> age='example'

In Java, we must declare the type of data to be declared, and you need to explicitly declare it to a different type when needed. A type like an int can be cast into a float because int has a little less range.

class example
{
	public static void main (String[] args)
	{
		int a=5;
		float b;
		b=(float)a;
		System.out.println(b);
	}
}

Success #stdin #stdout 0.08s 26677KB
5.0

However, the Python interpreter will have to find out the types of variables used. Thus, it should work harder at runtime. Java, as we see, it is statically-typed. If we declare an int and assign a string to it, it shows a type exception.

class example
{
	public static void main (String[] args)
	{
		int a=10;
		a="Hello, I am Java";
	}
}

Compilation error #stdin compilation error #stdout 0.08s 26810KB
a=”Hello, I am Java”;
^
1 error

The simplicity of Java and Python

Regard to its simple syntax, a Python program is typically 4 - 5 times shorter than in Java. We have seen earlier, to print “Hello, I am Java” to the screen, you need to write 7 lines of code in Java. But we do the same thing in Python in just one statement. Hence, coding in Python raises programmers’ productivity because they need to write only so much code which is needed.

To prove this, we’ll try to change two variables, without using a third variable, in these two languages. Let’s start with Java first.

class example
{
	public static void main (String[] args)
	{
		int a=50,b=100;
		a=a+b;
		b=a-b;
		a=a-b;
		System.out.println(a+" "+b);
	}
}

Success #stdin #stdout 0.1s 27660KB
100 50

Now, let’s do the same in Python.
>>> x,y=100,50
>>> x,y=y,x
>>> x,y
(50, 100)

We have can see here, we needed one statement for swapping variables x and y. The statement before was for assigning their values, and then another after is for printing them out to verify that swapping has been performed. This is an important point in Python and Java.

The speed of Python and Java

When it comes to faster performance, Java is the number 1. Since Python is the interpreter-based programming language, we expect them to run slower than Java. They are also slower because the types are assumed more in runtime. There is an extra work for the interpreter at runtime. The interpreter follows the rule of REPL (Read Evaluate Print Loop). And also, the IDLE has built-in syntax highlighting feature, and to make get the previous and next commands, we press Alt+p and Alt+n separately.
However, they also are faster to develop, thanks to Python’s conciseness. In situations where speed is not an important issue, we may go with Python, for the benefits it offers more than no use of its speed limitations. However, in projects where speed is the important component, we should go for Java, because Java is faster.

Portability of Java and Python

Both Python and Java are portable languages. But due to the high popularity of Java, it is first to prefer. The JVM (Java Virtual Machine) can be found almost anywhere.

Database Access in Java and Python

Like we have always said, Python’s database access layers are very weaker than Java’s JDBC (Java DataBase Connectivity). This is why it isn’t used in IT industries rarely use it in critical database software.

Interpreted – Java and Python

With tools such as IDLE, you can also make interpret Python instead of compiling it. While it reduces the program length and boosts the productivity of a programmer, but it also results in slower overall execution.

Conclusion:

So, after all that we have discussed here in Python and Java article, we come to conclude that both languages having their own benefits. It really is up to us to choose one for our projects. While Python is simple and concise in coding, Java is fast and more portable compared to it. While Python is dynamically declared type, Java is statically declared type. Both are powerful in their own worlds.
So we know which out of java and python is best for our projects, install python on Operating System if you are willing to go ahead with Python.



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